Pigments and Colors

In nature, the color of the flower is different from the leaf from the time of its opening. Sulfur gives a yellow color; phosphorus renders the petals phosphorescent at night and white in the sun, etc..

After the last Ice Age, appeared terpenes -the chemical components of over 40 carbon atoms, with a base pentacarbonate units(C5) - and terpenoids. Since that time nature has developed a system of pigments. We can consider Isoprene as one of nature's preferred element of construction in this system. These skeletons can be arranged in a linear manner or form rings.

4284162638.pngClassification of terpenes based on the number of pentacarbonates units:

▪ monoterpenes (C10). These are the most common. They have the formula C10H16 and have many isomers.

▪ sesquiterpenes (C15), C15H24 ▪ diterpenes (C20), C20H32

▪ the sesterpènes (C25)

▪ triterpenes (C30), C30H48

▪ the tetraterpenes (C40), C40H64, carotene, a pigment important for photosynthesis plant is part of the terpene family.

▪ polyterpenes natural rubber: natural rubber.

The xanthophylls are molecules derived from the yellow carotenes (C40), which by the addition of oxygen atoms become carotenoids (alcohol functions, ketone, epoxy, ...).

Violaxanthin is an orange dye, a color found in a variety of plants.

The Lutein pigment gives an orange-red color.

These molecular compounds are found in the petals of certain yellow, orange or red flowers, where they hide the pygments of green chlorophyle . 
 At the opening of flower bud, the inside of the flower will be more or less exposed to the sun ...

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